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Monday AM

OPENING SESSION

Room A1 07:15 – 8:25 Chairs: David G. Norris, ISMRM President & Isabel Berry, M.D., Ph.D., ESMRMB President

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7:15 Welcome and Awards Presentations

2010 LAUTERBUR LECTURE

Room A1 08:25 – 9:05 Chair: David G. Norris, ISMRM President

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8:25

Lauterbur Lecture: MRI Over the Next Decade: Quo Vadis?

William G. Bradley, M.D., Ph.D. University of California, San Diego, CA, USA

Clinical Needs & Technological Solutions: Alzheimer's & Dementia

A1 09:05-10:15 Organizers & Moderators: Stefan Sunaert and Mark A. van Buchem

09:05

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Clinical Needs for Dementia and AD: Revising the Criteria

Bruno Dubois1 1Hôpital La Salpêtrière, Paris, France

New diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease have been recently proposed that are centered around a clinical core of early and significant episodic memory impairment. They stipulate that in addition there must also be at least one or more abnormal biomarkers amongst structural neuroimaging with MRI, molecular neuroimaging with PET and CSF analysis of amyloid β/tau proteins. The timeliness of these criteria is underscored by the myriad of drugs currently under development that are directed at altering the disease pathogenesis, particularly at the production and clearance of amyloid β as well as at the hyperphosphorylation state of tau.

09:25

2

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Imaging Solutions I: Structural and Functional Imaging

Wiesje M. van der Flier1 1Lieden University, Leiden, Netherlands

MRI has an increasingly large role in the clinical work-up of dementia. In the new research criteria, atrophy of the medial temporal lobe is mentioned as one of the diagnostic criteria for AD, but norm values are still awaited. Mixed disease (i.e. combination with vascular disease) remains a challenge, as there are no diagnostic guidelines available. MRI measures hold promise as markers of disease progression and can potentially be used as outcome measures in trials. The heterogeneity of AD is increasingly acknowledged. MRI may prove valuable to describe endophenotypes of AD, both in terms of structural and functional brain changes

09:50

3

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Imaging Solutions II: Molecular Imaging

Louise van der Weerd1 1Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands

The development of molecular imaging techniques for in vivo assessment of beta-amyloid accumulation in the ageing brain is an important and active area of research in AD. Numerous ligands have been developed with affinity for beta-amyloid, based on beta-amyloid peptide, monoclonal antibody fragments, or small peptides, which were functionalized with iron oxide particles or gadolium chelates. Alternatively, amyloid plaques have been labeled with small molecules containing a 19F atom and visualized using 19F MRI. Up to now, the only compounds that are in use for clinical imaging are nuclear medicine–based amyloid labeling tracers.

CLINICAL INTENSIVE COURSE


(Admission limited to Clinical Intensive Course registrants only)
Shoulder & Elbow Imaging: Case-Based Teaching

K1 08:15-10:15 Organizer & Moderator: Juerg Hodler

08:15

Elbow: Case-based


Russell C. Fritz, M.D.

09:15

Shoulder: Case-based


Lynne S. Steinbach, M.D.

10:15 Adjournment


CLINICAL INTENSIVE COURSE
Women’s Imaging: Case-Based Teaching

K1 11:00 -13:00 Moderators: Talissa Altes, Elmar Max Merkle, and Bachir Taouli

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


Upon completion of this course participants should be able to:

  • Describe the impact of functional MR methods in body imaging;

  • Apply new body MR techniques in their practice;

  • Use multiparametric MRI for improved diagnosis of abdominal diseases; and

  • Design new female pelvic and prostate MR protocols tailored to new therapeutic methods, introduce these methods and compare them to more conventional approaches.

11:00

Benign Breast Lesions


Elizabeth A. Morris, M.D.
11:30

Breast MRI: Easy and Difficult Cases


Bonnie N. Joe, M.D., Ph.D.
12:00

Benign Diseases of the Uterus


Andrea G. Rockall, M.R.C.P., F.R.C.R.
12:30

Ovarian Masses


Evis Sala, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.R.
13:00 Adjournment

CLINICAL INTENSIVE COURSE
SWI Metalheads: Imaging Brain Iron

K2 11:00 -13:00 Organizers & Moderators: Stefan Sunaert and Mark A. Van Buchem

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


Upon completion of this course participants should be able to:

  • Describe methods and underlying principles for obtaining and analyzing susceptibility weighted images;

  • Explain current thinking regarding iron metabolism and deposition within the brain; and

  • Describe several diseases of iron deposition within the brain and the application of susceptibility weighted imaging to diagnosis and study of these processes.

11:00

SWI Basics, Applications and Pitfalls


Jürgen R. Reichenbach, Ph.D.
11:40

Pathophysiology of Brain Iron


John F. Schenck, M.D., Ph.D.
12:20

Diseases of Iron Deposition


Mark A. Van Buchem, M.D., Ph.D.
13:00 Adjournment

MRI of Neural Plasticity

Room A1 11:00-13:00 Moderators: Jeffrey Joseph Neil and John G. Sled

11:00 Introduction
Jeffrey Joseph Neil

11:12

4

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Training Induced Volume Changes Seen by Structural MRI Correlate with Neuronal Process Remodelling

Jason Philip Lerch1, Adelaide P. Yiu2, Alonso Martinez-Cabal2, Tanyar Pekar2, Veronique D. Bohbot3, Paul Frankland2, R Mark Henkelman1, Sheena A. Josselyn2, John G. Sled1 1Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Douglas, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

We correlated training induced volume changes seen by high-resolution mouse MRI with four cellular markers to test whether (1) alterations in neuron numbers/sizes; (2) alterations in astrocyte numbers/sizes; (3) increased neurogenesis/survival of new neurons; or (4) remodelling of neuronal processes best explain the MRI results. We detected a significant positive correlation between GAP-43 and structure volume, but found no correlation between MR volume and any other cellular measure. We can thus conclude that, among the hypotheses tested, the largest explanatory factor for learning induced MRI detectable volume changes is the remodelling of neuronal processes.

11:24

5

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Do Congenitally Blind People Have a Stria of Gennari? First

in Vivo

Insights on a Subcortical Level

Robert Trampel1, Derek Veit Ott1, Robert Turner1 1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

The primary visual cortex V1 is characterized by an easily identifiable anatomical landmark: the heavily myelinated stria of Gennari. Using T1, T2, T2* or phase contrast, high resolution MRI studies can routinely identify the stria of Gennari in vivo. However, the development and function of the Gennari stripe is unclear. MRI at 7 Tesla with isotropic 0.5 mm voxels was used to scan the occipital brain of sighted and congenitally blind subjects. The stria of Gennari was reliably detected in both sighted and blind subjects, showing that this anatomical feature is not a developmental result of visual input, and it does not degenerate in the absence of visual input.

11:36

6

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Cerebral Myelin Content Correlation with Mathematical Abilities in Young Children

Richard Davis Holmes1, Silvia Mazabel2, Burkhard Maedler3, Christian Denk, Linda Siegel4, Christian Beaulieu5, Alex MacKay6 1UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education, University of British Columbia; 3Philips Medical Systems; 4Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology and Special Education, University of British Columbia; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta; 6Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia

Structural imaging applied to children with wide ranging mathematical abilities has the potential to elucidate the question of what neural circuits underly computation based tasks. The present investigation analyzed the myelin water fraction images of 20 children in a standard space to deduce correlations between myelin content and math abilities. Subjects wrote a calculation-based test and an applied problem-based test. The results implicated occipital/parietal white matter, the right anterior limb of the internal capsule and the left external capsule with positive correlations of 0.61,0.65 and 0.60, respectively.


11:48

7

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Structural Brain Plasticity Visualized with Diffusion MRI Following a Learning and Memory Task

Tamar Blumenfeld-Katzir1, Ofer Pasternak2, Yaniv Assaf1 1Neurobiology Department, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 2Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

We utilized DTI to follow up on micro-structural changes that occur following a spatial memory task. We scanned rats before and after water maze task and compared their MRI scans using voxel-based statistics. Significant changes in the various DTI parameters were found in a multitude of brain regions including the limbic system and white matter systems. The changes in the DTI indices were found to correlate with immuno-reactivity staining of myelin, synapses and astrocytes. Using these observations, we conclude that DTI can be used as an in-vivo probe of structural plasticity both in gray matter and white matter.

12:00

8

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Hard-Wired or Soft-Wired ? Evidence for the Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobectomy

Mahinda Yogarajah1, Niels Focke2, Silvia Bonelli1, Pam Thompson1, Christian Vollmar1, Andrew McEvoy3, Mark Symms1, Matthias Koepp1, John Duncan1 1MRI Unit, National Society for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, Bucks, United Kingdom; 2University of Goettingen, Germany; 3University College London Hospital, United Kingdom

Epilepsy is the most chronic, common neurological condition. Many patients with temporal lobe epilepsy undergo anterior temporal lobe resection, but up to 40% of patients are at risk of language decline after surgery. We carried out a longitudinal study using diffusion tensor imaging to assess the structural reorganisation of white matter after surgery. In patients undergoing surgery in the language dominant hemisphere, there is an increase in FA in white matter connecting fronto-temporal regions. The location of these increases and their correlation with language function suggest they may represent the structural plasticity of language networks after surgery.

12:12

9

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Diffusion MRI of Short-Term Spatial Memory Related Brain Plasticity

Ido Tavor1, Yaniv Sagi1, Shir Hofstetter1, Efrat Sasson1, Yaniv Assaf1 1Neurobiology, Tel Aviv university, Tel Aviv, Israel

Neuroimaging studies of brain plasticity reveal long-term learning related structural changes in several brain regions. Animal studies revealed that short term micro-structural changes can be observed with diffusion MRI. Here, we study the diffusion MRI changes in a short term spatial memory task in humans. Subjects underwent two MRI scans separated by two hours of a learning session. We found that DTI parameters had changed in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, amygdala and insula. The main result of this work is that DTI can follow on learning-induced micro-structural tissue changes, already 2 hours following the training episode.

12:24

10

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A Demonstration of Neural Plasticity in Resting Brain Network

Kuang-Chi Tung1, Jinsoo Uh1, Hanzhang Lu1 1Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

We hypothesized that an important feature of the evoked activity, the plasticity of the neural response, may also be present in the resting condition and may provide critical information for understanding the nature and significance of the resting state brain activity. Using motor cortex as a model, we demonstrated for the first time that the resting brain activity can be altered after repetitive stimulation of the associated brain networks. This method may provide a new approach to study brain plasticity in humans and may find applications in studies of aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

12:36

11

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Unilateral Infraorbital Denervation Leads to Plasticity in the Rat Whisker Barrel Cortex.

Xin Yu1, Stephen J. Dodd1, Seungsoo Chung1, John Isaac1, Judith R. Walters1, Alan P. Koretsky1 1NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States

Interhemispheric plasticity may play a critical role during functional restoration following central/peripheral nervous system injuries in humans. Previously, the interhemispheric plasticity in the rat somatosensory cortex (S1) following forepaw unilateral denervation has been studied in order to develop rodent models of plasticity detected in humans by fMRI. Here, the effects of unilateral infraorbital denervation (IO) to rat whisker responses were studied. Large ipsilateral fMRI activation was detected after IO. In addition, BOLD signals in the contralateral barrel cortex were significantly increased. This indicates that the unilateral IO caused plasticity of the whisker-barrel cortex ascending pathways and increased interhemispheric interactions.

12:48

12

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fcMRI Plasticity Following Rat Median Nerve Injury and Repair at 9.4T

Rupeng Li1, Patrick Hettinger2, Younghoon Cho1, Christopher P. Pawela1, Maida Parkins2, Seth Jones2, Ji-Geng Yan2, Andrzej Jesmanowicz1, Anthony Hudetz3, Hani Matloub2, James Hyde1 1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States; 2Plastic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States; 3Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

Plasicity happening to the resting state connectivity map following rat peripheral nerve injury and repair was shown using 9.4T. Unique patterns of plasticity could help monitoring the neuro-network function when functional test in not available.

Advanced Neuro Imaging of Dementing Diseases

Victoria Hall 11:00-13:00 Moderators: Mark A. van Buchem and Wolfgang Weber-Fahr

11:00

13

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The Role of Iron in T

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* Contrast and Transverse Relaxation of Beta-Amyloid Plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease

Mark David Meadowcroft1,2, James R. Connor3, Qing X. Yang1,3 1Radiology - Center for NMR Research, Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States; 2Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States; 3Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

Conventional belief is that iron associated with beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques is the underlying mechanism for plaque contrast in transverse imaging. Through detailed histological MR examination in comparison to traditional histology methods utilizing iron chelation of plaques, this body of work has determined that there is a dual relaxation associated with human (Aβ) plaques. Removal of iron from human (Aβ) plaques still results in plaque MR imaging and relaxation. The data indicate that iron content alone is not responsible for the hypo-intensities seen on the MR images and that there is a synergy between iron and plaque morphology on transverse relaxation.

11:12

14

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Optimization of Susceptibility Weighted Imaging at 7T for Improved Detection of Alzheimer’s Amyloid Plaques Associated with Iron in Human Postmortem Brain

Yulin Ge1, Tang Lin1, Daniel K. Sodickson1, Edward Lin1, Jing Yang1, E Mark Haacke2, Mony de Leon1, Robert I. Grossman1, Thomas Wisniewski1 1New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY, United States; 2Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

Due to markedly enhanced susceptibility contrast and signal-to-noise ratio at ultra-high-field MR, it is possible to detect amyloid plaques associated with iron deposition using susceptibility weighted imaging in patients with AD.

11:24

15

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Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Huntington's Disease Measured Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling

J. Jean Chen1, David H. Salat1, H. Diana Rosas, 12 1A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States; 2Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

Huntington's disease (HD) has been associated with wide-spread cortical and subcortical grey matter atrophy, in which the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormalities is potentially significant. However, low spatial resolution erodes the ability of conventional techniques to reveal spatially-specific CBF changes. In this work, we present, for the first time, HD-related quantitative CBF changes measured using pulsed arterial-spin labelling (PASL). Regressing out the effect of cortical thinning, our results still show significant underlying CBF reduction across the cortex. CBF also decreased in the striatum and hippocampus. CBF reduction patterns were found to be partially independent of structural atrophy.

11:36

16

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Dynamic Changes in Brain Metabolites and Tissue Water Diffusion Following Oral Amino Acid Challenge in Cirrhotics with Hepatic Encephalopathy

Fiona Smith1, Hanan Mardini, Christopher Record, Andrew M. Blamire1 1Newcastle MR Centre & Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Liver cirrhosis kills more than 750,000 people worldwide each year. Almost 30% of patients with cirrhosis experience hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric complication potentially linked to formation of cerebral edema driven by elevated blood ammonia. We used DTI and proton MRS to monitor edema and metabolite changes during induced hyperammonaemia by amino acid challenge in HE patients. Elevated blood ammonia was accompanied by increased ADC and decreased myo-Inositol. Absolute increase in blood ammonia significantly correlated with ADC and inversely correlated with myo-Inositol in the individual patients strongly supporting ammonia driven brain edema as a neurochemical mechanism for HE in cirrhosis.


11:48

17

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Joint Contribution of Structural and Perfusion MR Images for the Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease

Duygu Tosun1, Pouria Mojabi1, Mike W. Weiner1, Norbert Schuff1 1Center for Imaging Neurodegenerative Diseases, San Francisco, CA, United States

To determine the joint contribution of structural and arterial spin labeling MR imaging for the classification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we analyzed the cortical thickness and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measures jointly in a cross-sectional study of 24 AD and 38 healthy elderly controls using an integrated multimodality MRI processing framework and a cortical surface-based analysis approach. From the joint analysis, we infer that cortical atrophy dominates prediction of AD while CBF adds no significant value. One interpretation of the results is that CBF is diminished proportionately to brain tissue loss and therefore provides no additional information to structural alterations.

12:00

18

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Neuroprotective Mechanism of Minocycline in an Accelerated Macaque Model of NeuroAIDS

Eva-Maria Ratai1,2, Chan-Gyu Joo1,2, Jeffrey Bombardier1, Robert Fell1, Julian He1,2, Reza Hakimelahi1,2, Tricia Burdo3, Jennifer Campbell3, Patrick Autissier3, Lakshmanan Annamalai4, Eliezer Masliah5, Susan Westmoreland, 2,4, Kenneth Williams3, Ramon Gilberto Gonzalez1,2 1Department of Radiology, A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; 3Biology Department, Boston College, Boston, MA, United States; 4Division of Comparative Pathology, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA, United States; 5Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a significant problem. Using the accelerated macaque model of neuroAIDS in combination with in vivo MR spectroscopy minocycline was found to be neuroprotective and able to reverse increased high energy metabolism, most likely localized to glia. Evaluating our observations, clues into the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection included reduction of microglial activation, reductions of CSF and plasma viral loads during treatment, and a reduction in a subset of circulating monocytes considered to be responsible for viral infection of the CNS by cell trafficking mechanisms.

12:12

19

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The Role of the Uncinate Fasciculus in the Development of Dementia: A DTI-Tractography Study

Laura Serra1, Mara Cercignani1, Roberta Perri2, Barbara Spanò1, Lucia Fadda2,3, Camillo Marra4, Franco Giubilei5, Carlo Caltagirone2,6, Marco Bozzali1 1Neuroimaging laboratory, Fondazione IRCCS Santa Lucia, Roma, Italy; 2Department of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Santa Lucia, Roma, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, , University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy; 4Institute of Neurology, Università Cattolica, Roma, Italy; 5Department of Neurology, II Faculty of Medicine University of Rome, ‘Sapienza’, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy

The uncinate fasciculus (UF) connects temporal and frontal regions, traditionally implicated by pathological damage in dementia. We aimed at assessing, using DTI and tractography, the role of UF damage in the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and whether its involvement could distinguish between patients with AD and patients with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced only in the UF of demented patients as compared to both, HS and a-MCI patients. This suggests that UF involvement is relevant for the development dementia, but it does not distinguish between AD and DLB.

12:24

20

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Cerebral Microbleeds Are Predictive of Mortality in the Elderly

Irmhild Schneider1, Stella Trompet1, Anton J.M. de Craen1, Adriaan C.G.M. van Es1, Mark A. van Buchem1, Jeroen van der Grond1 1Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

Cerebral microbleeds are commonly found in patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and Alzheimer disease. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of microbleeds in terms of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in a population suffering from vascular disease or at high risk for developing this condition. We found that the presence of two or more microbleeds implicates an increased risk of overall death. Furthermore, only “non-CAA” type microbleeds were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death. Therefore, CAA type small vessel disease cannot be considered as risk factor for (cardiovascular) mortality.

12:36

21

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Tract Atrophy in Alzheimer’S Disease Measured Using Probabilistic Tractography

Hojjatollah Azadbakht1,2, Hamied A. Haroon1,2, David M. Morris1,2, Karl V. Embleton, 2,3, Stephen F. Carter4, Brandon Whitcher5, Julie Snowden6, Geoff J.M. Parker, 27 1Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, , School of Cancer and Imaging Sciences,, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; 2The University of Manchester Biomedical Imaging Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; 3School of Psychological Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; 4Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; 5Clinical Imaging Centre, GlaxoSmithKline, London, United Kingdom; 6Greater Manchester Neuroscience Centre, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, United Kingdom; 7Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, School of Cancer and Imaging Sciences,, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

The quantitative characterisation of atrophy can provide useful biomarkers for assessing the evolution of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is likely that atrophy caused by such conditions also affects white matter (WM) tracts via degenerative processes. If specific tract systems are more prone t¬¬o atrophy than others, then tractography-guided atrophy measurements may be more sensitive than less targeted methods which focus on global gray and/or white matter. In this work we apply a novel method for quantifying the width of WM tracts to look for evidence of tract atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects.

12:48

22

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Increases in CBF by Donepezil Treatment Enhance Cingulate Functional Network Activity in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

Wenjun Li1, Chunming Xie1,2, Jennifer Jones3, Malgorzata Franczak3, Piero Antuono3, Shi-jiang Li1 1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States; 2Neurology, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiansu, China,; 3Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

Cholinergic inhibitor (Aricept®) has been shown to improve cognitive function in adults with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Also, it has an effect on improving the cerebral blood flow (CBF) perfusion detected by PET technology. Previously we have found increased CBF in cingulate and posterior cingulated regions using a Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pCASL) MR technique. It is hypothesized that the increase in CBF after treatment could alter functional connectivity in related neural networks. The aim of the current study is to determine the changes in the functional connectivity in networks with significantly increased CBF after the drug treatment.


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